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Corporate Compliance: A Ruling from the Court of Milan Further Clarifies How to Prevent Corporate Criminal Liability in Case of Directors’ Criminal Violations

The Italian Supreme Court recently stated that the director’s criminal liability cannot automatically trigger the recognition of corporate criminal liability, as company’s organizational fault must be specifically demonstrated by the Public Prosecutor.[1] Now, the Court of Milan[2] specifically clarifies how an appropriate and effective Organization, Management and Control Model (Model 231) pursuant to Italian Legislative Decree 231/01 (Decree 231) can shield the company from corporate criminal liability.

On January 25, 2024, the Court of Milan convicted the senior managers of an Italian joint-stock company (owned by a foreign-based multinational company) for false corporate communications, pursuant to Article 2621 of the Italian Civil Code (ICC), which provides the criminal liability of directors, general managers, managers in charge of preparing corporate accounting documents, auditors and liquidators when they represent false material facts or they omit material facts whose disclosure is required by law concerning the economic or financial situation of the company or the group.

The Court’s Overview of the Preconditions for Corporate Liability for Criminal Violations

In addition to the analysis of the liability of natural persons, the Court of Milan examined the legal requirements for the company to be deemed liable for crimes committed by

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New Government Bill to Reverse Supreme Court’s Decision on Litigation Funding

The Litigation Funding Agreements (Enforceability) Bill was introduced to Parliament this week, following the UK government’s announcement earlier this month that it would introduce legislation that would reverse the outcome of the UK Supreme Court’s recent decision in R (on the application of PACCAR Inc and others) v Competition Appeal Tribunal and others.[1]

In PACCAR, a part of the well-known “Trucks” litigation in the Competition Appeal Tribunal (CAT), the Supreme Court held that litigation funding agreements (LFAs) that entitle funders to be paid a portion of any damages recovered (as opposed to a multiple of the investment made by the litigation funder) are “damages-based agreements” (DBAs), as defined in the Courts and Legal Services Act, and were therefore unenforceable unless they complied with the relevant regulatory regime (DBA Regulations 2013).

The ruling in PACCAR was set to have significant ramifications for litigation funders, claimants and claimant law firms in the UK which rely on third-party funding, potentially threatening the financial viability of swathes of the litigation funding industry. Typically, LFAs have been structured as the greater of a multiple of monies invested by the funder and a percentage of damages recovered. This percentage element is

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Clearview AI Inc Overturns Regulatory Intervention at First Instance

Clearview AI Inc.’s facial recognition technology has been subject to regulatory scrutiny from the privacy sector worldwide, including the UK Information Commissioner who issued the US company with monetary penalty and enforcement notices (the Notices) for alleged violations of GDPR/UK GDPR (the Regulations).

In a judgment dated October 17, 2023 (the Judgment), the UK’s First-tier Tribunal (FTT) (being the first level of regulatory appeals) upheld, on jurisdictional grounds, Clearview’s appeal of the Notices. The Commissioner sought permission to appeal on November 17, 2023. This blog piece is a reduced version of our wider commentary on the case, which is available here.


Clearview is a US company providing facial recognition services to criminal law enforcement and national security agencies (and/or their contractors) outside of the United Kingdom and the European Union. In short, Clearview collects publicly available images of faces from the internet, which are compiled into a database (the Database). Clearview’s software then creates a mathematical ‘vector’ of those faces, such that they can be indexed and searched against. Clearview’s clients are able to upload their own images onto their private Clearview platform and compare those images against the Database. Clearview’s algorithmic software will return images of sufficient

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